- Why soil changes color in air
[NEWS] firstname.lastname@example.org Science China Press According to the results of a recent study, soil color changes in the atmosphere basically through the oxidation of chemical substances in the soil. The fundamental mechanism is the remodeling effect of micro-structures because of motion effects and chemical reactions of the water - soil - electrolyte - at…
- Are plants more intelligent than we assumed?
[NEWS] email@example.com 49-341-235-1635 Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ In the fight against parasites, the Barberry sacrifices its own seeds depending upon its chances of survival Leipzig. Plants are also able to make complex decisions. At least this is what scientists from the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UF…
- Cultural world heritage threatened by climate change
[NEWS] firstname.lastname@example.org 49-331-288-2507 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) From the Statue of Liberty in New York to the Tower of London or the Sydney Opera House — sea-level rise not only affects settlement areas for large parts of the world population but also numerous sites of the UNESCO World Heritage. This is shown in a new …
- Amazon's canopy chemistry is a patchwork quilt
[NEWS] email@example.com 650-380-2828 Carnegie Institution Washington, D.C. - In many ways, plants act as chemical factories, using energy from sunlight to produce carbon-based energy and taking nutrients from the soil in order to synthesize a wide variety of products. Carnegie scientists asked the question: How much does the portfolio of chemicals…
- Unmasking the secrets of the extinct moa
[NEWS] firstname.lastname@example.org 047-840-6565 Griffith University Using a DNA barcoding technique in a study of the difficult to classify Euryapteryx moa genus Griffith researchers have undertaken a study to clarify the number of species which existed of the extinct New Zealand moa. The findings have been pu…
- How Dark Chocolate Improves Heart Health
Credit: Alexander Stein / Public Domain
Research has shown that dark chocolate is good for cardiovascular health. A study published in The FASEB Journal indicates that dark chocolate improves cardiovascular health by helping to keep arteries flexible and preventing white blood cells from getting stuck to blood vessel walls. This helps to reduce blood pressure and increase blood flow to the heart and brain.
According to researcher Diederik Esser, "We provide a more complete picture of the impact of chocolate consumption in vascular health and show that increasing flavanol content has no added beneficial effect on vascular health. However, this increased flavanol content clearly affected taste and thereby the motivation to eat these chocolates." Flavanol is the antioxidant in dark chocolate that is responsible for improving cardiovascular health.
Learn more about this study:
- Why Dark Chocolate is Good for Your Heart (Science Daily)
- Bacterial Adhesion Study May Help Stop Staph Infections
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bacteria
Credit: CDC/ Janice Haney Carr/ Jeff Hageman, M.H.S.
Berkeley Lab scientists and other researchers are attempting to discover a way to stop Staph infections by studying how Staphylococcus aureus bacteria adhere to surfaces. These bacteria can adhere to medical equipment and cause serious illness if they enter the body and cause an infection. Some strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are even more threatening as they have developed resistance to antibiotics.
According to researcher Mohammad Mofrad, "By understanding the preferences of bacteria during adhesion, medical implant devices can be fabricated to contain surface features immune to bacteria adhesion, without the requirement of any chemical modifications." The researchers discovered that S. aureus cells can adhere to various types of surfaces, including horizontal surfaces and highly curved surfaces. Bacteria are able to adhere to surfaces due to the presence of cell adhesion molecules located just outside of the bacterial cell wall.
Learn more about this study:
- First Look at How Staphylococcus Cells Adhere to Nanostructures (Science Daily)
Image Credit: Cell Image Library
All cells of the nervous system are comprised of neurons. A neuron, or nerve cell, consists of two major parts: a cell body and nerve processes. The cell body is the largest part of a neuron and contains the neuron's nucleus, associated cytoplasm, and other cell structures. The cell body produces proteins needed for the construction of other parts of the neuron.
Nerve processes are "finger-like" projections from the cell body that are able to conduct and transmit signals. There are two types of nerve processes: axons and dendrites. Axons typically carry signals away from the cell body. They are long nerve processes that may branch out to convey signals to various areas. Dendrites typically carry signals toward the cell body. Dendrites are usually more numerous, shorter and more branched than axons. Axons and dendrites are bundled together into what are called nerves. These nerves send signals between the brain, spinal cord, and other body organs via nerve impulses.
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- Garlic Stops Resistant Bacteria
Image Credit: Suat Eman FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Could garlic be the key to stopping antibiotic resistance? Researchers have discovered that a chemical substance found in garlic effectively kills antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The substance, ajoene, prevents Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria from releasing a toxic substance that destroys white blood cells.
According to researcher Tim Holm Jakobsen, "Ajoene supports and improves treatment with conventional antibiotics. We have clearly demonstrated this on biofilm cultivated in the laboratory and in trials involving mice. When we add antibiotics to biofilm they have very little effect, and ajoene alone barely makes any difference. It is only when the two are combined that something significant happens." The combined treatment of ajoene and antibiotics was found to kill 90 percent of bacterial biofilm.
Learn more about this study, see:
- Garlic Counteracts Virulent Bacteria (Science Daily)
- Why Men Are Typically Taller Than Women
Image courtesy of Helsingin yliopisto (University of Helsinki)
While studying genetic factors behind different traits in men and women, University of Helsinki researchers have identified a genetic variant on the X sex chromosome that accounts for height differences between the sexes. Sex cells, produced by male and female gonads, contain either an X or a Y chromosome. The fact that females have two X chromosomes and males only have one X chromosome must be taken into account when attributing difference in traits to variants on the X chromosome.
According to the study's head researcher, Professor Samuli Ripatti, "The double dose of X-chromosomal genes in women could cause problems during the development. To prevent this, there is a process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in the cell is silenced. When we realized that the height associated variant we identified was nearby a gene that is able to escape the silencing we were particularly excited." The height variant identified influences a gene that is involved in cartilage development. Individuals that possess the height variant tend to be shorter than average. Since women have two copies of the X chromosome variant, they tend to be shorter than men.
Learn more about this study:
- Opening 'the X-Files' Helped Researchers to Understand Why Women and Men Differ in Height (Science Daily)