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  • Study: Earth can sustain more terrestrial plant growth than previously thought
    [NEWS] diya@illinois.edu 217-333-5802 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign CHAMPAIGN, Ill. - A new analysis suggests the planet can produce much more land-plant biomass - the total material in leaves, stems, roots, fruits, grains and other terrestrial plant parts - than previously thought. The <a href=”http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es5…
  • A high-resolution bedrock map for the Antarctic Peninsula
    [NEWS] 49-331-288-1040 GFZ GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Helmholtz Centre New estimates on ice mass 26.08.2014: Antarctic glaciers respond sensitively to changes in the Atmosphere/Ocean System. Assessing and projecting the dynamic response of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula to changed atmospheric and oceanic forcing requires high-resolution ice thickness data as an essential geometric …
  • Physics research removes outcome unpredictability of ultracold atomic reactions
    [NEWS] yujunw@k-state.edu 785-532-2666 Kansas State University MANHATTAN, Kansas - Findings from a physics study by a Kansas State University researcher are helping scientists accurately predict the once unpredictable. Yujun Wang, research associate with the James R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University, and Paul Julienne at the Univers…
  • Jurassic Welsh mammals were picky eaters, study finds
    [NEWS] hannah.johnson@bristol.ac.uk 0044-117-928-8896 University of Bristol For most people, mere mention of the word Jurassic conjures up images of huge dinosaurs chomping their way through lush vegetation - and each other. However, mammals and their immediate ancestors were also around in the Jurassic period (201-145million years ago), albe…
  • Record decline of ice sheets
    [NEWS] medien@awi.de 49-471-483-12008 Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research For the first time scientists map elevation changes of Greenlandic and Antarctic glaciers “The new elevation maps are snapshots of the current state of the ice sheets. The elevations are very accurate, …



  • Our Ears Help Us See

    Image: graur codrin / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

    Researchers have discovered that the visual cortex in the brain uses auditory information to help create visual images. Sound waves detected by the ears and visual clues processed by the eyes are used to create visual images in order to predict what may happen in the future.

    According to lead researcher Lars Muckli, "Sounds create visual imagery, mental images, and automatic projections. So, for example, if you are in a street and you hear the sound of an approaching motorbike, you expect to see a motorbike coming around the corner. If it turned out to be a horse, you'd be very surprised." The researchers monitored brain activity in the early visual cortex of participants in the study. The individuals were asked to listen to sounds without being able to see anything. It was discovered that the early visual cortex was being activated in the absence of visual stimulation.

    Learn more about this study:

    Our Ears Help Us See originally appeared on About.com Biology on Thursday, May 29th, 2014 at 15:33:18.

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  • Red Wine Could Help Prevent Cavities

    Credit: John Kasawa / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

    Could red wine help prevent cavities? A recent study presented in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry suggests that red wine and grape seed extract are effective at destroying bacteria biofilm. Biofilm is a slimy substance that protects bacteria from antibiotics, chemicals, and other substances that are hazardous to the microbes. As bacteria feed on sugars present in the mouth, they produce acid which destroys tooth enamel and creates cavities.

    In the study, the researchers exposed cavity producing bacteria biofilms to red wine with and without alcohol, as well as to red wine with grape seed extract. The results showed that all three solutions were effective at killing bacteria. The researchers state that while brushing with toothpaste does get rid of cavity causing bacteria, its effects are limited.

    Learn more about this study:

    Red Wine Could Help Prevent Cavities originally appeared on About.com Biology on Monday, May 26th, 2014 at 14:06:44.

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  • How Pathogenic Bacteria Colonize Vegetables

    E. coli Bacteria
    Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH

    James Hutton Institute researchers have identified the process by which E. coli bacteria infect plant products. An E. coli O157:H7 bacterium uses its flagellum, a long protrusion used for movement, to pierce through the plant cell wall. The attached bacterium is then able to colonize the surface of the vegetable. Eating these infected plants could cause food poisoning.

    According to researcher Dr. Nicola Holden, "This work shows the fine detail of how the bacteria bind to plants. We think this mechanism is common to many food-borne bacteria and shows that they can exploit common factors found in both plants and animals to help them grow." Bacteria that remain on the surface of the plant can be removed by washing, however some bacteria are also able to gain access to the internal portions of the plant. The researchers contend that this information is valuable as it demonstrates that E. coli O157:H7 don't just move passively through the food chain, but aggressively interact with plants and animals.

    Learn more about this study:

    How Pathogenic Bacteria Colonize Vegetables originally appeared on About.com Biology on Friday, May 23rd, 2014 at 15:11:19.

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  • Dangerous Bacteria on Aircraft Cabin Surfaces

    Image Credit: Vera Kratochvil / Public Domain Images

    Two dangerous types of bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and E. coli, are able to survive on airplane cabin surfaces for as long as a week. Researchers tested several surfaces including armrests, plastic tray tables, and cloth and leather seat pockets. When the surfaces were exposed to bacteria under conditions similar to those on an airplane, the bacteria were able to survive for days.

    According to researcher Kiril Vaglenov, "Our data show that both of these bacteria can survive for days on the selected types of surfaces independent of the type of simulated body fluid present, and those pose a risk of transmission via skin contact." MRSA and E. coli can cause serious illness if a person becomes infected by these germs. This study underscores the importance of developing and applying effective disinfection techniques in aircraft cabins.

    Learn more about this study:

    Dangerous Bacteria on Aircraft Cabin Surfaces originally appeared on About.com Biology on Wednesday, May 21st, 2014 at 19:11:55.

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  • Why Octopuses Don't Get Tangled in Their Tentacles

    Octopus
    Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons

    Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers have made an interesting discovery that helps answer the question of why an octopus doesn't get tangled up in its tentacles. Unlike the human brain, the octopus brain does not map out the coordinates of its appendages. As a result, octopuses don't know where their arms are exactly. To prevent the octopus's arms from grabbing the octopus, its suckers will not attach to the octopus itself. The researchers state that an octopus produces a chemical in its skin that temporarily prevents the suckers from grabbing.

    According to the researchers, "The results so far show, and for the first time, that the skin of the octopus prevents octopus arms from attaching to each other or to themselves in a reflexive manner. The drastic reduction in the response to the skin crude extract suggests that a specific chemical signal in the skin mediates the inhibition of sucker grabbing." It was also discovered that an octopus can override this mechanism when necessary, as evidenced by its ability to grab an amputated octopus arm.

    Learn more about this study:

    Why Octopuses Don't Get Tangled in Their Tentacles originally appeared on About.com Biology on Friday, May 16th, 2014 at 08:26:35.

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